Was halten Sie von der Gentechnologie?
Die Methoden der Gentechnologie erlauben es, beliebige Gene völlig neu zu kombinieren. Damit eröffnen sie die Möglichkeit, das Erbgut der Lebewesen gezielt und schnell zu verändern und es bestimmten Zwecken zu unterwerfen. Im Mittelpunkt heutiger genchirurgischer Bemühungen steht die Konstruktion von Bakterienzellen, die durch den Einbau eines fremden Gens (z. B. von einem Säugetier oder vom Menschen) zu Produktionsstätten für medizinisch oder technisch interessante Produkte (z. B. Hormone, Impfstoffe) werden. Das erste gentechnisch hergestellte Medikament war das Hormon Insulin, das zur Behandlung von Diabetes unentbehrlich ist. Dabei wird in Coli-Bakterien das entsprechende menschliche Gen eingeschleust, das beim gesunden Menschen für eine ausreichende Insulinproduktion sorgt. Dieses so gewonnene Insulin ist darum identisch mit dem normalerweise im menschlichen Körper produzierten. Fernere Zielsetzungen sind es, bei Kulturpflanzen den Nährwert zu verbessern, sie gegenüber Infektionen und Unkrautvertilgungsmitteln unempfindlicher zu machen oder Erbkrankheiten durch Einschleusen eines zusätzlichen intakten Gens in den Chromosomenverband des Menschen zu heilen. Der Nutzen dieser neuen Technologie ist unverkennbar. Es ist jedoch auch hier zu bedenken, dass jede Technik ambivalent ist: Mit einem Hammer kann man einen Nagel in die Wand hauen, aber auch einem Menschen den Schädel einschlagen. Auch bei gut gemeinter technischer Anwendung sind die langfristigen Folgen kaum abschätzbar. All das gilt in besonderer Weise auch für die Gentechnik.

Mit dem Turmbau zu Babel war – wie allgemein bekannt ist – das Gericht der Sprachverwirrung verbunden. Weniger Allgemeingut ist, dass Gott den Menschen auch in seinem Tun dahingegeben hat: »Hinfort wird ihnen nichts mehr unmöglich sein« (1Mo 11,6). Gott gewährt dem Menschen, Taten zu vollbringen, die er lieber nicht ausführen sollte. Es wäre dem Menschen gut, wenn er nicht die Fähigkeit besäße, Gaskammern zu bauen, um darin massenweise Menschen zu vernichten, Atombomben zu entwickeln, um damit Städte auszulöschen, oder Ideensysteme zu erdenken, die den Menschen versklaven. So liegt es im Bereich des menschlich Machbaren, zum Mond zu fliegen, Organe zu verpflanzen und Gene zu manipulieren.

Der nicht an Gott gebundene Mensch hält sich für autonom und kennt keine Einschränkungen in seinem Handeln. Sein Tun wird ihm selbst zum Gericht. Der an Gott glaubende Mensch wird nach biblischen Massstäben suchen und nicht alles tun, was machbar ist. In dem Auftrag »mehret euch« (1Mo 1,28) beteiligt Gott uns Menschen an einem Schöpfungsprozess. In der geschlechtlichen Zuordnung von Mann und Frau hat Gott alle Voraussetzungen zu diesem Schöpfungsvorgang gegeben, dennoch bleibt Gott auch dabei der Bildner: »Deine Augen sahen mich, da ich noch unbereitet war« (Ps 139,16). Bei der Genmanipulation können wir in den von Gott vorgegebenen Prozess verändernd eingreifen: Die in eine befruchtete Eizelle übertragenen Gene können an nachfolgende Generationen weitergegeben werden. Dieser Eingriff ist nicht mehr rückgängig zu machen und birgt unüberschaubare Gefahren in sich. Chr. Flämig sieht in utopischer Vision das Endziel der Genetik in der Schaffung eines Übermenschen: »Die besten Geister der Menschheit werden … genetische Methoden entwickeln, die neue Eigenschaften, Organe und Biosysteme erfinden, die den Interessen, dem Glück und der Herrlichkeit jener gottgleichen Wesen dienen, deren dürftige Vorahnung wir elenden Kreaturen von heute sind« (»Die genetische Manipulation des Menschen«. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B3/1985, S. 3-17). Bei solcher Zielsetzung wird der Mensch zum Gott verachtenden Prometheus:

»Hier sitz’ ich, forme Menschen Nach meinem Bilde, Ein Geschlecht, das mir gleich sei, Zu leiden, zu weinen Zu genießen und zu freuen sich, Und dein nicht zu achten Wie ich!«
Johann Wolfgang v. Goethe

 

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