Was ist Sünde?

Ehe die Bibel das Wort »Sünde« nennt, führt sie uns deren Wirkungsgeschichte plastisch vor Augen (1Mo 3,1-13). Sie bringt nicht erst die Theorie und dann die Praxis, sondern umgekehrt erst die Praxis und leitet dann daraus das Grundsätzliche ab. Die Sünde fand ihren Eingang in diese Welt durch die Frage des Versuchers: »Sollte Gott gesagt haben?« (1Mo 3,1). Sünde ist damit ein Handeln, das dem Willen Gottes entgegengerichtet ist. Treffliche Spiegel, um die eigene Sündhaftigkeit zu erkennen, sind die Zehn Gebote (2Mo 20,1-17) und die Bergpredigt Jesu (Mt 5-7). Wenn jemand ohne das Wort Gottes lebt, kennt er somit nicht dessen Willen, und damit lebt er automatisch und permanent in Sünde. Das zuerst in der Bibel vorkommende Wort für Sünde (hebr. chattath) in 1. Mose 4,7 bedeutet Zielverfehlung, ebenso ist das griechische »hamartia« zu übersetzen. Weitere Bedeutungen des Wortes Sünde sind Abbiegung, Verdrehung (hebr. awon), Bosheit, Schlechtigkeit (hebr. raa), Gewalttat (hebr. chamas), böse Gesinnung (hebr. räscha). Schon das bloße Fehlen der Gerechtigkeit ist Sünde: »Weh dem, der sein Haus baut mit Nichtgerechtigkeit « (Jer 22,13). Im Neuen Testament lautet die entsprechende Definition für Sünde: »Was aber nicht aus dem Glauben geht, das ist Sünde« (Röm 14,23). Hermann Bezzel nannte die Reduktion des Menschen auf sich selbst Sünde. In Johannes 16,9 identifiziert Jesus die Generalsünde der Menschen mit der Beziehungslosigkeit ihm gegenüber: »… dass sie nicht an mich glauben.« Sünde ist die große Störung in dem Verhältnis zwischen Gott und Mensch. Wer nicht die Kurskorrektur durch Umkehr und Vergebung (1Joh 1,9) erfährt, der erlebt die Folge der Zielverfehlung als unabänderliches Gesetz: »Der Sünde Sold ist (ewiger) Tod« (Röm 6,23). Bei vielen Menschen steht die Gesundheit auf Platz 1 der Rangliste, aber sie beachten nicht die schlimmste Krankheit: Die Sünde – die Krankheit zum Tode.

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